CBD oil
Our collection of scientific articles,
research, and findings about CBD.

Welcome to Calyx’s Science section! In this section, we aim to provide a solid scientific background for those interested in the many potential applications of CBD in order to help establish an active, well-informed community with a voice in the academic world.

We are dedicated to continually updating our website with information for the public to access, including references to recently-published articles as research progresses, as well as articles published in the past. Our goal is to provide information which can be understood by the common individual, with a clear path ahead for those who wish to dig deeper.

To begin, please follow the links below, or use the search bar. For those visiting for the first time, we recommend beginning with the Introduction and CBD 101 pages, as these will provide a simple but necessary background for interpreting the information contained in the many pages of this section. Happy learning!


Potential Applications of CBD

Cannabidiol is a non-intoxicating, anti-inflammatory and analgesic that works via CB1/2 receptors. Canada approved of this therapy for central and peripheral neuropathic pain in 2005 through numerous clinical trials that proved safety and efficacy. The glutamatergic system is integral to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, it is important to note that cannabinoids like CBD presynaptically inhibit glutamate release. The ECS (Endocannabinoid System) is active throughout the neuraxis (axis of the Central Nervous System), including integrative functions in the periaqueductal gray matter (primary control center for descending pain modulation), and in the ventroposteriolateral nucleus of the thalamus (relay motor and sensory signals to the cerebral cortex), in which cannabinoids proved to be 10-fold more potent than morphine in wide dynamic range neurons mediating pain. Associate Ailments include: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Fibromyalgia, Diabetes and Carpal Tunnel

Cannabidiol connects to neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate chemical constituents such as dopamine, serotonin and glutamate. Dopamine controls the reward and pleasure centres as well as emotional responses. Serotonin controls mood balance, social behavior, sleep, memory and overall happiness and wellbeing. The anxiolytic actions of CBD promote a homeostasis regarding these areas that effect the personality and cognitive behaviors. Clinical trials have been done regarding the effect of various dosages of Cannabidiol on humans and their interactions regarding several mental and emotional states. Some include: Anxiety, Social Anxiety Disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Insomnia.

“CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment, and discomfort in their speech performance.”
“One of the first effects of CBD to be observed was its sedative action … sleep-inducing properties and increase in total sleep were described. CBD significantly increased the number of subjects that slept for seven or more hours.”
“Considering that the anxiolytic properties of CBD can be mediated by the activation of 5-HT1a receptors that this modulation can induce antidepressant effects.”

A significant association has been observed in cannabidiol-treated patients and its antipsychotic properties. Clinical symptoms have improved through the ability of CBD to inhibit FAAH gene activity that increases an endocannabinoid, anandamide signalling. Cannabidiol reduces psychotic symptoms through this gene and its interaction with serotonin 5-HT1a receptors, GPR55 receptors and vanilloid-1 receptors. A study outlines Endocannabinoid System therapies have potential beneficial effects through exogenous activation of this system through cannabinoids like CBD. Through ECS the connection with FAAH enzyme can be more effective than CB1 receptors in regards to antidepressant actions. It must be know that depression is a multi-factorial disorder that can manifest with different symptoms with both genetic and environmental causes. The use of cannabidiol on a consistent basis aids in the perception of these causes. The use of cannabidiol on a consistent basis aids in the perception of these causes, and the reactions moving forward to dealing with anxiety causing triggers that can led to disorders such as depression. It is also important to address the individualistic holistic treatment for case specific disorders such as mental illness, to truly find the proper dosage and therapy that will improve overall quality of life

Cannabidiols range of actions is very wide, including its relevance to addictive disorders. Through serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems, it acts to balance drug reward and stress vulnerability, both triggers of craving and relapse in addicted individuals. It also mediates reward, goal-directed behavior and habit formation relative to addiction. It is important to note that difference in substance abuse and phase of addiction translates to different systems and mechanisms being effected. Along with an anxiolytic, antidepressant and anticonvulsant effects CBD is known for, pain has become another perpetuation to drug abuse, especially opiates. It has also been recognized for the safe use in humans from a strictly therapeutic perspective. Preclinical findings also recognize its effects on cerebral ischemia and nausea associated with withdrawal symptoms.

“Altogether, many pharmacological, preclinical and clinical properties of CBD that has been demonstrated over roughly that last decade all point towards a potential role for CBD in alleviating behaviours relevant to addiction disorder.”

Cannabidiol has many actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotectant and antioxidant properties. Neurodegenerative brain disease is caused by a slow progression of neuronal function in specific areas of the brain which is recognized by cognitive, motor and/or behavioural dysfunctions. This attributes to one of the main causes of death in industrialized countries. CBD has been reviewed for its prevention and management of main neurodegenerative disorders by protecting neuronal and nonneural cells against factors that effect these functions. This includes B-amyloid (plaque found in the brain of AD patients) or 6-hydroxydopamine (a neurotoxic compound that destroys neurotransmitters like dopamine and glutamate). Important clinical trials have confirmed the potential pharmacological activity of CBD in the management of clinical symptoms and the slow-down of the progression of a variety of pathologies.

Chelsea’s Cadogan Clinic in the UK, an award winning in Medical Excellence has conducted research and development with cannabidiol through consultant dermatologist Dr. Alexi Granite and the Daily Mail UK. Cannabidiols anti-inflammatory properties are effective and encouraging into anti-aging skincare treatments; “If you can reduce inflammation you can reduce aging!” Antioxidant properties in CBD allow for free radicals to be minimized and oxidation of healthy cells to remain undamaged by external and internal environments. External environments include the UV rays from sunlight and can be used topically as an organic sunscreen. CBD is more potent than Vitamin C and E in this medicinal action. Anti-inflammatory effects on the dermis include response to free radicals as well as the surrounding tissues from degradation of collagen and elastin. Cell regeneration is another strong property of CBD and its ability to regulate cell dysfunction and start to repair damage from previous harm.

Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors (CB2) are present in human skin as well as anandamide that provides balance to cell regeneration a contributing factor to conditions like psoriasis. Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease characterized in part by an increase in keratinocyte cell production. Keratin is a fibrous protein that is the main constituent of skin, hair and nail cells.

Cannabinoid Type 1 and 2 Receptors (CB1/2) act to suppress immune and inflammatory processes with the use of exogenous cannabinoids like CBD. Any inflammatory response in the skin due to allergens, infections and eczema respond to balance infiltrating immune cells, keratinocytes and sebocytes.

CBD acts on human skin gland function effectively by inhibiting oil production and rapid increase in cell formation. This is through vanilloid-4 channel by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism. Another G protein coupled receptor A2A adenosine uses CBD to exert complex anti-inflammatory actions to decrease in the progression of acne vulgaris.

Research proves CBD promotes cardiovascular, joint an brain health along with an increase in immune function. Cannabidiol promotes neurogenesis and neuroplasticity that repairs damage from concussions and also builds new brain cells. Physiologically, CBD acts as a vasodilator, regulates calcium ion production and nitric oxide production therefore decreasing the frequency of muscle spasms and works within our bone marrow via CB1 and CB2 receptors to rebuild broken bones. Cannabidiol has potent anti-inflammatory action by modulation cytokine production. Cytokines are the signaling proteins synthesized and secreted by immune cells upon inflammation.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) effects 3 of every 4 women who menstruate, after ovulation in the luteal phase before menstruation. The symptoms of PMS influence a wide range of body functions from hormonal to muscular as well as range in a large scale in terms of aggressiveness from slight to severe. There are 4 different types of PMS that include: PMSA (anxiety-high estrogen), PMSB (bloating), PMSC (cravings) PMSD (depression-high progesterone). Based on a very delicate balance of estrogen and progesterone the symptoms can vary between A-D and also experiencing all four types throughout one menstrual cycle is common. Dr. Julie Holland, a psychiatrist and psychopharmacology specialist agrees that our mammalian Endocannabinoid System is responsible for maintaining a homeostasis during this unbalanced time of the month for women. CBD acts as an anti-inflammatory antioxidant, anxiolytic and muscle relaxant to relieve these symptoms most women experience on a consistent basis. Holland states, “anandamide, our main internal endocannabinoid, helps to tamp down the stress response and return our hormones and nervous system to a normal balance, or homeostasis.”

Menopause marks the end of a woman’s reproductive abilities by naturally stopping menstruation cycles because of decrease in production of the hormone estrogen. There are three stages,perimenopause is 3-5 years before, menopause and post-menopause 1 year after. Estrogen directly binds to the Endocannabinoid System, and only in females. FAAH, an enzyme that creates and metabolizes cannabinoids is regulated by estrogen. Hot flashes, mood wings, loss of bone mass, low libido, weight gain, insomnia and pain are all symptoms. It is understood that a deficiency in endocannabinoids is the result of these conditions and can be brought back to balance using CBD.

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